rheological properties, high-filled paste-like composites, particulate filler, surface modification of filler, liquid rubber, surfactants, polyperoxide


The paste-like composites of particulate KCl filler in a liquid rubber were prepared and their rheological properties were studied using a cone-and-plate rotation viscometer. Effects of the nature and concentration of surfactant added to composite, as well as the surface modification of KCl particles by functional polyperoxide on rheology of the paste prepared are discussed in this paper. In case of unmodified filler, temperature enhanced and surfactants added brought about some reduction of the paste viscosity, while effect of the KCl surface modification by functional polyperoxide was more complicated. At room temperature such modification brought about essential reduction of the paste viscosity (by 1.5–2 times) imparting them flowability; however after heating, these pastes demonstrated a manifold growth in viscosity because of interaction of functional polyperoxide with macromolecules of liquid rubber and the formation of interphase chemical bonds. Thus, preheating of the pastes containing peroxide-modified filler allows to control their rheological properties.

Author Biographies

Alexandr B. Surovtcev, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

Associate professor

Viktor S. Tokarev, Lviv Polytechnic National University

Senior Researcher

Mykhaylo P. D'yachenko, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University


Oleh M. Shevchuk, Lviv Polytechnic National University

Senior researcher

Stanislav V. Tokarev, Lviv Polytechnic National University

Researcher at the physics department


Sutton, G. P. Biblarz, O. (2010). Rocket propulsion elements / Eds. - 8th ed. Pub: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.

Thomas B. Brill, Wu-Zhen, Ren; Vigor, Yang. (Ed.). (2000). Solid Propellant Chemistry, Combustion, and Motor Interior Ballistics / Eds. - Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, AIAA, NY, Vol. 185. Pub. Reston, Virginia, USA.

Fabignon, Y., Anthoine, J., Davidenko, D., Devillers, R., Dupays, J., Gueyffier, D., Hijlkema, J., Lupoglazoff, N., Lamet, J. M, Tessé, L., Guy, A., Erades, C. (2016). Recent Advances in Research on Solid Rocket Propulsion. Aerospace LAB Journal, 11, 1-15.

Bondarenko, S. G., Eliseev, V. I., Protsan, Yu. V. (2010). Rocket propulsion using unitary paste-like propellant. Experimental investigation of paste-like propellant and results of PRM fire tests. Prog. of 61-th International Astronautical Congress (IAC-10.C44.1.9.). Prague. Czech Republic, 27.

Sarner, S. F. (1966). Propellant chemistry. New York, USA: Reinhold.

Lipanov, A. M., Zarko, V. E. (2017) Survey of Solid Rocket Propulsion in Russia. In: De Luca L., Shimada T., Sinditskii V., Calabro M. (eds) Chemical Rocket Propulsion. Springer Aerospace Technology. Springer, Cham.

De Luca, L., Shimada, T., Sinditskii, V. P., Calabro, M. (Ed.). (2016). Chemical Rocket Propulsion: A Comprehensive Survey of Energetic Materials. Springer.

Varghese, T. L., Krishnamurthy, V. N. (2017). The Chemistry and Technology of Solid Rocket Propellants (A Treatise on Solid Propellants). Pub:, New Delhi, USA: Allied Publishers.

Serdyuk, A. I., Protsan, Yu. V., Bondarenko, S. G. (2013) Slurry-propellant rocket propulsion. Eco-safety and new power opportunities. Tests of new propellants (IAC- 2013, C4.3,11), Proc. of 64-th International Astronautical Congress, Beijing, China.

Tretiakov, K. O., Potupa, O. V., Oginski, S. G., Kurochkin, A. F., Surovtcev, А. B. (2006). [Dependence of rheological characteristics of paste-like rocket propellant from dispersion of filler, concentration of filler and PEAHENS]. Voprosy khimii I khimicheskoi tekhnologii – Issues of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 3, 158–163. (in Ukrainian)

Tadros, T. F. (2010). Rheology of Dispersions: Principles and Applications. Wiley-VCH,.

Bröckel, U., Meier, W., Wagner, G. (Ed.).(2013). Product, Design and Engineering: Formulation of Gels and Pastes, 1st Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany.

Eliseev, V., Bondarenko, S., Kurochkin, A., Mayorskaya, T., Ustimenko, E., Surovtsev, A. (2012). [Experimental and numerical research reological descriptions of paste-like propellant compositions]. Zaporogye, Vestnik dvigatelestroeniya, 1, 26-30. (in Russian).

Kurochkin, A. F., Dolmatova, N. V., Surovtcev, А. B. (2011). [High-filled compositions on the base on olygomeric rubber], All materials. Encyclopaedic reference book, Мoscow: Science and technology, 1, 35–40. (in Russian).

Tokarev, V., Voronov, S., Seredyuk. V., Kozar, M., Bednarska, O. (1996). Modification of interface by polymeric peroxides - a new approach to the creation of composites. Adsorption Sci. Technol. 14(4), 239-249.

Voronov, S., Tokarev, V., Datsyuk, V., Seredyuk, V., Bednarska, O., Oduola, K., Adler, H., Puschke, C., Pich, A., Wagenknecht, U. (2000). Polyperoxidic Surfactants for Interface Modification and Compatibilization of Polymer Colloidal Systems. 2. Design of Compatibilizing Layers. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 76, 1228-1239.<1228::AID-APP3>3.0.CO;2-8

Shankar, R. M., Roy, T. K., Jana, T. (2009). Terminal functionalized hydroxyl‐terminated polybutadiene: An energetic binder for propellant. J Appl Polym Sci, 114(2), 732-741.

Vilenskaya, M., Karamov, D., Sorokin, E., Petrovskaya, G., Puchin, V. (1979). [Obtaining of dimethylvinylethynylmethyltret-butyl peroxide. Khimicheskaya promyshl, 7, 15–17. (in Russian).

Voronov, S., Tokarev, V., Oduola, K., Lastukhin, Yu. (2000) Polyperoxide Surfactants for Interface Modification and Compatibilization of Polymer Colloidal Systems. 1. Synthesis and Properties of Polyperoxide Surfactants. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 76, 1217-1227.<1217::AID-APP2>3.0.CO;2-F

Musa, O. M. (Ed.). (2016). Handbook of Maleic Anhydride Based Materials: Syntheses, Properties and Applications. Springer, New Jersey.

Tokarev, V., Shevchuk, O., Bukartyk, N., Wagenknecht, U. (2005). The Effect of Structure of Compatibilizing Layer at the Mineral Filler Surfaces on Mechanical Properties of Premixes. Materials of International Symposium 'Technomer-2005', Chemnic, Germany, AP5. 1-10.

Surovtcev, А., Kovalenko, К., Kuzmenko, N., Bondarenko, S. (2014). [Influence of the nature of surface-active substances on rheology of high-filled paste-like compositions on a base on liquid diene rubber and disperse filler]. Bull. Dnipropetrovsk Univ. Ser. Chem., 22(2), 76–81. (in Russian).б

Shafranska, O., Tokarev, V., Voronov, A., Bednarska, O., Voronov, S. (2005). Graft Polymerization from a Silica Surface Initiated by Adsorbed Peroxide Macroinitiators. I. Adsorption and Structure of the Adsorbed Layer of Peroxide Macroinitiators on a Silica Surface. Langmuir, 21(8), 59-69.

Shevchuk, O., Wagenknecht, U., Wiessner, S., Bukartyk, N., Chobit, M., Tokarev, V. (2015). Flame-retardant polymer composites on the basis of modified magnesium hydroxide. Chemistry & Chemical Technology, 9(2), 149-155.

Protsan, Yu., Maydaniuk, D., Bondarenko S. (2013). Rocket Propulsion Using Unitary Paste-like Propellant Analysis of Mass Efficiency for Applications in the Composition of Landing Units and Upper Stages of Launch Vehicles. Proceedings of International Forum on Special Equipments and Engineering Mechanics. Nanjing, P. R. China, 56-62.