PROBLEMS OF THE DAIRY AND MEAT INDUSTRY MARKET. MONITORING THE SPREAD OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT STRAINS OF SANITARY-INDICATIVE MICROFLORA
This article presents a study of monitoring the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of sanitary-indicative microflora of food products sold on the consumer market of Dnipropetrovsk region.
The increase of population in the world leads to an increase in the quality of livestock and poultry products. World experience shows that it is impossible to abandon the use of antibiotics in the rearing of pigs, cattle and poultry. Firstly, it is related to therapeutic and preventive measures in the fight against various diseases. Secondly, due to biochemical transformations in muscle fibers with the participation of antibiotics, consumer quality indicators (color, consistency) and technological quality indicators (moisture-absorbing and moisture-retaining ability) are improved. Therefore, livestock products can be one of the sources of sanitary microflora entering into the human body. In addition to the ability to cause an infectious process due to the synthesis of various pathogenic factors, including enzymes, toxins, adhesion substances, etc., in the sanitary-indicative microflora there is interstitial, intraspecific and intergeneric transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. This contributes to the emergence of cultures with acquired resistance to antibiotics and the formation of multi-resistant variants. Elimination of such strains from the human body will present certain difficulties.It was found that in the studied samples of milk and dairy products, as well as meat and offal of cattle and poultry, representatives of coliform bacteria, staphylococci and enterococci were less common. The isolated strains of sanitary-indicative microflora were the most resistant to ampicillin, oxacillin, tetracycline and doxycillin. 10 strains of S. aureus and 7 strains of S. epidermidis was classified as MRSA and MRSE, respectively. Five of them were resistant to vancomycin and three to linezolid. Among the isolated cultures of enterococci were strains that were resistant to 5-6 or more drugs simultaneously. Of the bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, the ability to synthesize extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) was detected in 18 cultures, which accounted for 25.0% of the total number of opportunistic enterobacteria. The ESBL strains of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae differed from other isolates by resistance to at least 4 antibiotics, among which at least one belonged to the group of third-generation cephalosporins. 7 strains of Escherichia coli, two strains of P. vulgaris and three strains of K. pneumoniae were characterized by resistance to 6 or more tested drugs.
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