DESALINATION OF MINERALIZED WATERS USING REAGENT METHODS
Keywords:highly mineralized waters, sodium aluminate, lime, carbon dioxide, hardness ions, sulfates
Finding a solution to a problem of water supply and water protection within aquatic ecosystems is one of the major issues today. The present work treats and gives the solution of an important scientific and technical problem of developing highly efficient methods of water treatment and wastewater treatment from pollutants, which allows creating low-waste technologies for demineralization. Nanofiltration water treatment technologies allow obtaining high-quality drinking water and water with the necessary indicators. Concentrates formed during nanofiltration purification of highly mineralized natural and mine waters are characterized with high content of hardness ions and sulfates. Effective purification of water from sulfates can be achieved by using synthesized sodium aluminate and lime. The degree of softening and purification of concentrates from sulfates depends on the dose of lime and sodium aluminate, the ratio of reagents and the reaction of medium. The efficiency of the extraction of sulfates from water increases with increasing dose of lime at a constant dose of coagulant and with increasing dose of sodium hydroxyaluminate at a constant dose of lime. Exceeding the dose of lime by 20 % more than the stoichiometric ratio is inappropriate, and it only leads to slight increase in the efficiency of extracted sulfates from water. The efficiency of sulfate extraction at constant doses of lime increases with increasing dose of coagulant to 20–60% of the stoichiometric quantity of sulfates. By adjusting the pH of the medium to 7–7.5 with the help of carbon dioxide, an increase in the efficiency of extraction of hardness ions and sulfates was achieved. During desalination of highly mineralized waters at the optimal dose of reagents, the concentration of sulfates decreased to 69–89 mg/dm3 and hardness ions to 0.44–1.15 mg-eq/dm3. The regression equations were calculated for the dependence of residual concentrations of sulfates and hardness ions in water depending on the dose of lime and sodium hydroxyaluminate.
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