EXTRACTION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES FROM ONION PEEL WITH THE SUBCRITICAL WATER IN A STATIC MODE
Keywords:onion peel; extraction; subcritical water; biologically active substances; reactor; high pressure.
This work is devoted to the study of the use of subcritical water as an extractant for the extraction of biologically active substances from the yellow onion peel (Állium cepa). The aim of the study is to determine the optimal conditions for extraction of biologically active substances from yellow onion peel with subcritical water in static mode. Optimal conditions were determined by changing the parameters of the factors: temperature 145-185 ̊C, extraction time 10-20 minutes, the ratio of the mass of raw materials to the mass of the extractant (hydromodule) 1:30 - 1:60. Other parameters of the factors remained unchanged for each experiment, namely the set pressure of 0.8 MPa and the degree of grinding of raw materials… 0.5 mm. To obtain samples of onion peel extracts, an experimental setup based on a high-pressure reactor "РВД-2-500" was used. In the obtained samples of extracts, the content of dry substances, the total content of polyphenols, the total content of flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were determined. As a result, the highest average value of these indicators was found in the extracts obtained at a temperature of 164 ̊C , the extraction duration of 20 minutes, and the hydromodule 1:32. Static processing of experimental data was performed using the software package STATISTICA 10. In order to optimize the response function, regression equations were obtained. With a well-obtained equation, it is concluded that the interaction between the factors is absent. The values of the coefficients of determination and correlation are close to unity, which led to the conclusion that the equations are adequate. Subcritical water extraction was compared with two other methods in terms of efficiency. It was found that the indicators of extracts obtained by extraction with subcritical water were 1.36 and 1.96 times higher than the dry matter content of extracts, 1.66 and 1.28 times higher than the total content of polyphenols, 1.72 and 1.31 higher than the total flavonoids obtained by methods extraction with 70% ethanol and hot water, respectively. Therefore, the extraction of biologically active substances from yellow onion peel with subcritical water in a static mode is a good alternative to other extraction methods.
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