• Valerii A. Sukmanov Sumy National Agrarian University, Poltava State Agrarian Academy , Ukraine
  • Andrey V. Suprun Sumy National Agrarian University, Ukraine




onion peel; extraction; subcritical water; biologically active substances; reactor; high pressure.


This work is devoted to the study of the use of subcritical water as an extractant for the extraction of biologically active substances from the yellow onion peel (Állium cepa). The aim of the study is to determine the optimal conditions for extraction of biologically active substances from yellow onion peel with subcritical water in static mode. Optimal conditions were determined by changing the parameters of the factors: temperature 145-185 ̊C, extraction time 10-20 minutes, the ratio of the mass of raw materials to the mass of the extractant (hydromodule) 1:30 - 1:60. Other parameters of the factors remained unchanged for each experiment, namely the set pressure of 0.8 MPa and the degree of grinding of raw materials… 0.5 mm. To obtain samples of onion peel extracts, an experimental setup based on a high-pressure reactor "РВД-2-500" was used. In the obtained samples of extracts, the content of dry substances, the total content of polyphenols, the total content of flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were determined. As a result, the highest average value of these indicators was found in the extracts obtained at a temperature of 164  ̊C , the extraction duration of 20 minutes, and the hydromodule 1:32. Static processing of experimental data was performed using the software package STATISTICA 10. In order to optimize the response function, regression equations were obtained. With a well-obtained equation, it is concluded that the interaction between the factors is absent. The values of the coefficients of determination and correlation are close to unity, which led to the conclusion that the equations are adequate. Subcritical water extraction was compared with two other methods in terms of efficiency. It was found that the indicators of extracts obtained by extraction with subcritical water were 1.36 and 1.96 times higher than the dry matter content of extracts, 1.66 and 1.28 times higher than the total content of polyphenols, 1.72 and 1.31 higher than the total flavonoids obtained by methods extraction with 70% ethanol and hot water, respectively. Therefore, the extraction of biologically active substances from yellow onion peel with subcritical water in a static mode is a good alternative to other extraction methods.


Teshika, J. D., Zakariyyah, A. M., Zaynab, T., Zengin, G., Rengasamy, K. R., Pandian, S. K., & Fawzi, M. M. (2019). Traditional and modern uses of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.): a systematic review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 59(1), 39–70.


Choi, I. S., Cho, E. J., Moon, J. H., & Bae, H. J. (2015). Onion skin waste as a valorization resource for the by-products quercetin and biosugar. Food Chemistry, 188, 537–542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.028

Rodrigues, A. S., Almeida, D. P., Simal-Gándara, J., Pérez-Gregorio, M. R. (2017). Onions: a source of flavonoids. Flavonoids: From Biosynthesis to Human Health, 439.


Piechowiak, T., Grzelak-Błaszczyk, K., Bonikowski, R., Balawejder, M. (2020). Optimization of extraction process of antioxidant compounds from yellow onion skin and their use in functional bread production. LWT, 117, 108614.


Sharma, K., Mahato, N., Nile, S. H., Lee, E. T., Lee, Y. R. (2016). Economical and environmentally-friendly approaches for usage of onion (Allium cepa L.) waste. Food & function, 7(8), 3354–3369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-018-1184-4

Karak, P. (2019). Biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 10(4), 1567–1574. http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(4).1567-74

Xu, D., Hu, M. J., Wang, Y. Q., Cui, Y. L. (2019). Antioxidant activities of quercetin and its complexes for medicinal application. Molecules, 24(6), 1123.

Nile, S. H., Nile, A. S., Keum, Y. S., Sharma, K. (2017). Utilization of quercetin and quercetin glycosides from onion (Allium cepa L.) solid waste as an antioxidant, urease and xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Food chemistry, 235, 119–126.


Nayak, A., Bhushan, B. (2019). An overview of the recent trends on the waste valorization techniques for food wastes. Journal of environmental management, 233, 352–370.


Routray, W., Orsat, V. (2012). Microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids: a review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(2), 409–424.


Jang, M., Asnin, L., Nile, S. H., Keum, Y. S., Kim, H. Y., Park, S. W. (2013). Ultrasound‐assisted extraction of quercetin from onion solid wastes. International journal of food science & technology, 48(2), 246–252. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03180.x

Zhao, L., Zhao, G., Chen, F., Wang, Z., Wu, J., Hu, X. (2006). Different effects of microwave and ultrasound on the stability of (all-E)-astaxanthin. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54(21), 8346–8351. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061876d

Sukmanov, V.O, Petrova, J. M., Zakharevich, V.B, Marinin, A.I. (2015). Subcritical water as an extractant in the processes of extraction of biologically active substances from plant raw materials. Advanced Techniques and Technologies of Food Production, Restaurant Management and Trade, 1, 410–429.

Lachos-Perez, D., Baseggio, A. M., Mayanga-Torres, P. C., Junior, M. R. M., Rostagno, M. A., Martínez, J., Forster-Carneiro, T. (2018). Subcritical water extraction of flavanones from defatted orange peel. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 138, 7–16.


Zhang, J., Wen, C., Zhang, H., Duan, Y., Ma, H. (2020). Recent advances in the extraction of bioactive compounds with subcritical water: A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 95, 183–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2019.11.018

Jin, E. Y., Lim, S., oh Kim, S., Park, Y. S., Jang, J. K., Chung, M. S., Choi, Y. J. (2011). Optimization of various extraction methods for quercetin from onion skin using response surface methodology. Food Science and Biotechnology, 20(6), 1727–1733.


Sukmanov, V., Marynin, A., Dubova, H., Bezusov, A., & Voskoboіnik, V. (2016). Study of aroma formation from lipids of the fruit raw material. Ukrainian food journal, (5, 4), 629–643.

Sukmanov, V., Ukrainets, A., Zavyalov, V., Marynin, A. (2017). Research of extraction of biologically active substances from grape pomace by subcritical water. Eastern European Journal of Advanced Technology, (5 (11)), 70-80.

Sukmanov, V.O., Ukrainets, A.I., Zavyalov, V.L., Marinin A.I, Solovey L.V. (2019). [Subcritical extraction of biologically active substances from grape pomace]. Kiev, Ukraine: NUHT (in Ukrainian)

Munir, M. T., Kheirkhah, H., Baroutian, S., Quek, S. Y., Young, B. R. (2018). Subcritical water extraction of bioactive compounds from waste onion skin. Journal of Cleaner Production, 183, 487–494.


Ko, M. J., Cheigh, C. I., Cho, S. W., Chung, M. S. (2011). Subcritical water extraction of flavonol quercetin from onion skin. Journal of Food Engineering, 102(4), 327–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.09.008

Kim, S. W., Ko, M. J., Chung, M. S. (2019). Extraction of the flavonol quercetin from onion waste by combined treatment with intense pulsed light and subcritical water extraction. Journal of cleaner production, 231, 1192–1199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.280

Benito-Román, Ó., Blanco, B., Sanz, M. T., Beltrán, S. (2020). Subcritical Water Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Onion Skin Wastes (Allium cepa cv. Horcal): Effect of Temperature and Solvent Properties. Antioxidants, 9(12), 1233.


Lekary, A.V., Filonova, O.V., Borisenko, S.N., Maksimenko, E.V., Vetrova, E.V, Borisenko, N.I, Minkin, V.I. (2012). [Extraction of bioflavonoids from onion peel in subcritical water]. Supercritical Fluids: Theory and Practice, 7 (4), 4–15. (in Russian).

Lee, K. A., Kim, K. T., Kim, H. J., Chung, M. S., Chang, P. S., Park, H., Pai, H. D. (2014). Antioxidant activities of onion (Allium cepa L.) peel extracts produced by ethanol, hot water, and subcritical water extraction. Food Science and Biotechnology, 23(2), 615–621. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-014-0084-6

Maltseva, E. M, Egorova, N. O, Egorova, I. N, Mukhamadiyarov, R. A (2017). [Antioxidant and antiradical activity in vitro of extracts of the herb sanguisorbaofficinalisl], Collected in different stages of development. Medicine in Kuzbass, 16(2), 32–37. (in Russian).

Maltseva, E. M., Egorova, N. O., Egorova, I. N. (2011). Quantitative determination of total content of flavonoids in the grass of Burnet. Bulletin of the Ural medical academic science, 3(1), 68.

Zhu, O. P., Shubenkova, E. G., Guseva, E. A, Zemtsova, M. A (2012). [Reducing ability of extracts of biologically active substances of medicinal plants-components of emulsion systems]. Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines, 5. (in Russian).

Sukmanov, V.O., Suprun, A.V. [Prolongation of terms of storage of meat products by inclusion in their recipe of onion husk extract]. Innovative technologies and prospects for the development of the meat processing industry, 64. (in Ukrainen).

Alothman, M., Bhat, R., Karim, A. A. (2009). Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected tropical fruits from Malaysia, extracted with different solvents. Food chemistry, 115(3), 785–788.


Sharma, K., Ko, E. Y., Assefa, A. D., Ha, S., Nile, S. H., Lee, E. T., Park, S. W. (2015). Temperature-dependent studies on the total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, and sugar content in six onion varieties. Journal of food and drug analysis, 23(2), 243–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2014.10.005