• Miqdad Masood NFC-IEFR, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Najaf Ali Department of Chemical Engineering, NFC-Institute of Engineering and Fertilizer Research, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • M. Ashraf Research and Development Department, NFC-Institute of Engineering and Fertilizer ResearchPakistan, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Shoaib NFC Institute of Engineering & Fertilizer Research, Faisalabad, Pakistan, Pakistan



Pyrolysis, Thermal degradation, Kinetic study, Flynn Wall Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger method and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA)


Pakistani coal has a serious issue with its pre-treatment.That’s why the blend of coal and walnut shells is used in present research to utilize alarge reserve of coal by means ofwalnut shells. The present study used a 50 : 50 ratio of both feedstocks, which  were pyrolyzed in fixed bed reactor. The thermal degradation of the blend of walnut shells and coal was investigated by TGA and DTG analysisat different heating rate of 10, 20 and 25 °C/min. At 427 °C and 25 °C/min,the maximum degradation of blend was observed, indicatingthat 26.4 % of the bio-oil and 39% of the biochar fraction could be used for fuel. The minimum amount is preferred for the activation energy that is obtained at low conversion, and the highest amount of activation energy of 190 kJ/mol is obtained at a conversion of 0.6. The biochar obtained after pyrolysis of a mixture of walnut shells and charcoal was also characterized by proximate analysis, and elemental analysis showed that the sulfur fraction decreased from 4.48 % to 0.85 % and the heating value increased to 22.4 MJ/kg.


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