okara; flour confectionery; sugar biscuits; rheological properties of dough; nutritional value; amino acid composition; dietary fiber


There is a growing interest in nutrient-rich residues from the food industry, which can be used as alternative food ingredients. Okara is a nutrient-rich by-product of soy milk and tofu production. So far okara residues are already used as animal feed, but often they are openly burned or sent to landfills, which is environmentally hazardous. Including okara in the human diet is a promising valorization pathway. Flour confectionery products, particularly sugar cookies, could use okara flour as a substitute for conventional flour to increase its nutritional value. This study investigated the impacts of mixing okara flour into wheat sugar cookie dough on the contents and quality of gluten, the rheological properties of dough and the organoleptic quality and nutritional value of the sugar cookies. Okara flour was introduced into the dough in 10%weight by weight, 20 % w/w and 30 % w/w, replacing its equivalent amount of wheat flour. This reduced the raw gluten contents of the flour mixtures and, therefore, the elasticity and hydration capacity of the dough. With the addition of 20 % w/w of okara flour, the structural strength of the dough mass increased by 23 % and reduced the adhesive strength by 32%, making it less sticky and easier to form. The assessment of organoleptic quality indicators showed that the experimental sugar cookies with 10 % w/w and 20 % w/w okara flour surpassed the control wheat sugar cookies in taste, color, and appearance. Higher mass fractions of okara flour (30 % w/w) did not meet anymore organoleptic quality standards. It was found that compared with the control cookies the protein content in the 20 % w/w experimental sugar cookies was +30 %, dietary fiber 100 times, potassium +83.5 %, phosphorus +64 %, iron +57%, magnesium +20% and calcium 4.4 times. The 20 % w/w experimental sugar cookies also showed favourable isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan and phenylalanine+tyrosine contents. Overall, substituting wheat flour by okara flour in sugar cookies can improve the dough rheology and the nutritional value of the sugar cookies substantially. These results may help to further enhance and diversify confectionery products with okara flour and add to valorization pathways for food industry residues.

Author Biography

Galina V. Krusir, Odesa National Technological University

Dr. Sc., Prof., Department of Ecology and Environmental Technologies ONTU


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