okara; flour confectionery; sugar biscuits; rheological properties of dough; nutritional value; amino acid composition; dietary fiber


In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of food industry biomass products or waste as alternative formulation components that have a rich chemical composition. This group includes okara, a by-product of soy milk and tofu production that is a rich source of nutrients. But today, soybean residue is used as a fertilizer, an additive to animal feed, which is often burned to produce carbon monoxide, or sent to a landfill, which is environmentally hazardous. The inclusion of okara in the diet of the population is a way to reuse and reduce food waste and a way to enrich food products with nutrients. The choice of flour confectionery products, in particular sugar biscuits, as an object for the introduction of okara flour to obtain confectionery products of improved quality and nutritional value is substantiated. The paper presents the results of research on the use of recycled raw materials okara, which is a secondary product of soybean processing obtained because of filtration of soybean extract – as a recipe component in flour confectionery. The mass fraction of the additive and the stage of its introduction in the production of sugar biscuits were determined. The properties of the dough and baked products were studied for samples with 10, 20, and 30 % replacement of wheat flour with okara flour. A set of studies was conducted to determine the effect of okara on the technological properties of flour, rheological characteristics of dough, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of finished products. A comparative assessment of the chemical composition of biscuits with the inclusion of soybean hulls flour and the control sample in its formulation is given. It was found that the protein content in the experimental sample is higher by 30 %, dietary fiber by 100 times. The content of minerals in the experimental sample has significantly increased: potassium – by 83.5 %; phosphorus – by 64 %; iron by 57 %, magnesium by 20 % and calcium – by 4.4 times. The energy value of the experimental and control samples remained almost unchanged. Analysis of organoleptic quality indicators of biscuits showed that the developed products with okara significantly surpass the studied analogues in taste, color and consistency.

Author Biography

Galina V. Krusir, Odesa National Technological University

Dr. Sc., Prof., Department of Ecology and Environmental Technologies ONTU


Soybean seed market: what we are going into the 2022/23 marketing year with

Petibekaâ V.S. (2012). [Soâ: himičeskiĭ sostav i ispolʹzovanie]. Maĭkop: OAO «Poligraf-ÛG». (In Russian)

[Physicochemical and functional properties of soybeans] (In Russian)

Svetašova, L. A., Klymkyna, E.V. (2015). [Current state of soybean production and assessment of its impact efficiency]. Vestnyk Voronezhskoho hosudarstvennoho ahrarnoho unyversyteta, 46(3), 190–196. (In Russian)

Li, S., Zhu, D., Li, K., Yang, Y., Lei, Z., Zhang, Z. (2013). Soybean Curd Residue: Composition, Utilization, and Related Limiting Factors. ISRN Industrial Engineering, 2013, 1–8.

Wenda-Piesik, A.; Ambroziak, K. (2022). The Choice of Soybean Cultivar Alters the Underyielding of Protein and Oil under Drought Conditions in Central Poland. Appl. Sci., 12, 7830.

Sadovoi, V. V., Samylyna, V. A. (2005). [Soya food okara in composite formulated meat products]. Izvestia vuzov. Pyshchevaia tekhnolohyia - Food technology, (1), 47–48 (in Russian).

Hramcov, A.G., Sadovoj, V.V., & Samylina, V.A. (2004). [Component composition and probiotic properties of soybean meal okara]. Hranenie i pererabotka selhozsyrya - Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials, (4), 50–53 (in Russian).

Analysis of the main players in the confectionery market.

Analysis of the confectionery flour market in Ukraine. (2021).

Feofilaktova, O. V., Ponomarev, A. S. (2019). Technological property research of the alternative flour types while food producing in catering in catering. Food industry, 4(2), 28–34. 10.29141/2500-1922-2019-4-2-4.

Aobosova, L. A., Nesterova, I. Yu. (2019). Buckwheat flour in cake production. Confectionery and Baking Industry, 183(9–10), 36–38.

Yildiz, E., Şumnu, S.G., Şahin, S. (2018). Effects of buckwheat flour, gums and proteins on rheological properties of gluten-free batters and structure of cakes. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods, 10(3), 245–254.

Hopkin, L., Broadbent, H., Ahlborn, G. J. (2022). Influence of almond and coconut flours on Ketogenic, Gluten-Free cupcakes. Food Chemistry: X, 13, 100182.

Aleman, R. S., Paz, G., Morris, A., Prinyawiwatkul, W., Moncada, M., King, J. M. (2021). High protein brown rice flour, tapioca starch & polato starch in the development of gluten-free cupcakes. LWT, 152.

Paz, G., King, J. M., Prinyawiwatkul, W., Tyus, C. M. O., Aleman, R. S. (2020). High‐protein rice flour in the development of gluten‐free muffins. Journal of Food Science, 85(5), 1397–1402. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.15140.

Legumes in the technology of flour confectionery products Pdf.

Goyal, A., Sharma, V., Upadhyay, N., Gill, S., Sihag, M. (2014). Flax and flaxceed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food. Journal of Food Scitnce and Technology, 51(9), 1633–1653. doi: 10.1007/s13197-013-1247-9.

Myroshnyk, Y., Dotsenko, V., Sharan, L., Tsyrulnikova, V. (2020). Use of non-traditional vegetable raw materials in the technology of floury confectionary products for restaurant economy enterprises. Eureka:Life of Science, 1, 32–40. doi: 10.21303/2504-5695.2020.001113

Bachinska, A. (2017). The use of non-traditional raw materials in the production of flour confectionery as a progressive direction of creating products with increased biological value International Electronic Scientific Journal, 3(2), 7.1-7.10. doi:10.22178/pos.19-11.

Păcularu-Burada, B., Cantaragiu, A.-M.C., Vasile, M.A., & Bahrim, G.-E. (2022). Novel insights into different kefir grains usefulness as valuable multiple starter cultures to achieve bioactive gluten-free sourdoughs. LWT, 165, 113670.

Ostermann-Porcel, M. V., Rinaldoni, A. N., Rodriguez-Furlán, L. T., Campderrós, M. E. (2016). Quality assessment of dried okara as a source of production of gluten-free flour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 97,2934–2941

Lian, H., Luo, K., Gong, Y., Zhang, S., Serventi, L. (2019). Okara flours from chickpea and soy are thickeners: Increased dough viscosity and moisture content in gluten-free bread. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 55, 805-812.

Qin, P., Wang, T., Luo, Y. (2022). A review on plant-based proteins from soybean: Health benefits and soy product development. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 7,1000265.

Yang, L., Zhao, Y., Huang, J., Zhang, H., Lin, Q., Han, L., Liu, H. (2019). Insoluble dietary fiber from soy hulls regulates the gut microbiota in vitro and increases the abundance of bifidobacteriales and lactobacillales. Journal of Food Science and Technologies, 57,152–162.

Rani, R., Badwaik, L. S. (2021). Functional Properties of Oilseed Cakes and Defatted Meals of Mustard, Soybean and Flaxseed. Waste Biomass-Valorization, 12, 5639–5647.

Swallah, M.S., Fan,H., Wang, S., Yu, H., & Piao, C. (2021). Prebiotic Impacts of Soybean Residue (Okara) on Eubiosis/Dysbiosis Condition of the Gut and the Possible Effects on Liver and Kidney Functions. Molecules, 26, 326. molecules26020326.

Drobot, V. І. (Ed.) (2006). [Laboratory workshop on the technology of bakery and pasta production]. Kiev. Centre of Educational Literature. (In Ukrainian).

Iorgachova K.G., Makarova O.V., Gordiyenko L.V., Korkach G.V. (2019). [(in Russian).]. Workshop. Odessa. ONAHT. (in Russian).

Skurihin, I. M., Tutelian, V. A. (1998). [Guidelines for the Analysis of Food Quality and Safety]. Moscow. Medicine. (in Russian).

Shleykin, A.G., Skvortshova, N.N., Blandov, A.N. (2015). [Biochemistry, laboratory workshop, part 2]. St. Petersburg. ITMO. (in Russian).

Illina, O. A., Cyganova, T. B. (1995). [Guidelines for the calculation of the nutritional value of confectionery]. M. Profession. (in Russian).

Baturin, A. K. (2006). [Chemical composition and power value of food products]. St. Petersburg. Profession. (in Russian).