• Anna V. Ivanchenko Dnipro State Technical University, Ukraine
  • Oleksandr D. Sokol Dniprovsky State Technical University, Ukraine
  • Olga V. Soroka Dnipro State Technical University, Ukraine



zeolite, walnut shell, lignocellulosic sorbent, chemical activation, mineral acids, heavy metals, ferrum (III), zinc


The process of purifying model solutions from heavy metal iron(III) and zinc ions with sorbents of natural origin from secondary raw materials was studied. In the work, a number of experiments on the activation of natural sorbents were carried out. To activate zeolite, mineral acids HNO3, HCl, and H3PO4 were used, and lignocellulosic sorbent from walnut shells was activated with HNO3 and treated with an acid-salt solution containing 20 % H3PO4, 40 % CO(NH2)2, and 40 % H2O. The activation of the sorbents was carried out by technological operations of impregnation, washing with distilled water to pH = 7–8, and drying at a temperature of 130 °C. The finished sorbents were tested for effectiveness by extracting heavy metal Fe(III) and Zn  from water systems. Comparative characteristics of cellulose-containing sorbent with mineral zeolite are given. It was established that the use of chemically activated lignocellulosic sorbent is more effective for the extraction of heavy metals in comparison with acid-activated zeolite. The optimal duration of of the lignocellulosic sorbent with the adsorb ate is 3 hours, while the cleaning efficiency for Fe(III) is 82.5 %, and Zn is 84.65 %. The optimal dose of lignocellulosic sorbent was established, which was 1 g/dm3. A mathematical description of the kinetics of the iron (III) sorption process on a lignocellulosic sorbent in the 283 – 293 K temperature range was performed. It was established that the process of extracting heavy metals takes place in the diffusion region, the activation energy for Fe(III) is 41.22 kJ/mol, Zn – 34.36 kJ/mol. The advantages of the lignocellulosic sorbent are characterized by its cheapness, selectivity, cation exchange properties for removing heavy metals, and its use in the sorption purification of water systems at industrial enterprises given.

Author Biography

Oleksandr D. Sokol, Dniprovsky State Technical University

graduate student of the Department of Chemical and Biological Technologies, Dnipro State Technical University (Kamyanske, Ukraine)


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